Many sentences consist of more than one clause. Clauses are joined together by conjunctions. There will be some relationship between the clauses; that is, they will be tied in meaning in some way. The conjunction used to join the clauses must be selected for appropriate meaning.
Clauses can be joined together by the idea of TIME:
WHEN WHENEVER AFTER AFTERWARDS
WHILE DURING SINCE BEFORE
Clauses can ADD an idea to another clause:
,AND ;FURTHERMORE, ;ALSO, ;IN ADDITION,
The action of one clause may happen only because of the other clause; this is called CONDITION:
One clause may CAUSE another; this is called CAUSALITY or RESULT:
BECAUSE ;THEREFORE, ,FOR ;CONSEQUENTLY,
A conjunction can also show that one clause is used to EMPHASIZE the other:
;INDEED, ;IN FACT,
A conjunction can indicate that the two clauses show DIFFERENCES. It may be useful to think of the conjunction as ‘NOT!’:
,YET ALTHOUGH THOUGH
EVEN THOUGH ;NEVERTHELESS
To make sure you use these fancy conjunctions correctly, look them up in the dictionary and write down their meanings:
The conjunction of a sentence will appear in ONE of two places:
AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SENTENCE, or
IN THE MIDDLE OF THE SENTENCE.
If the conjunction is at the beginning of the sentence,
a comma will be placed at the end of the first clause in the middle of
the sentence. When the conjunction comes in the middle of the
sentence, it will not need a comma UNLESS the conjunction is AND, OR, YET,
FOR, or BUT. If the conjunction is a fancy conjunction, like those
you looked up in the dictionary, a semicolon is used before the conjunction,
and a comma is used after the fancy word.
To see how conjunctions tie two clauses together, circle the subjects and verbs in each clause and underline the conjunction. Then follow the directions at the end of the sentences.
1. After she had read some romance novels, the princess went into the garden.
2. While the princess sat on the edge of the pool, she watched a frog.
3. Since the frog was ugly, the princess found it fascinating.
4. When the frog spoke to her, she nearly fell into the water.
5. The princess was thrilled to be speaking to a frog; indeed, she thought it might be a handsome prince.
6. She wanted to hold it; moreover, she wanted to kiss it.
7. Since the princess constantly read old stories, she knew kissing ugly, talking frogs turned them into handsome princes.
8. The frog wanted the princess to kiss him; in fact, he seemed eager for her to do it.
9. Oddly, the frog had long fangs; nevertheless, the princess puckered up and planted a big one on his head.
10. The Frog turned into a handsome vampire, and he sucked up all the princess’s blood!
11. A witch had turned the vampire into a frog because she hoped to prevent tragedies.
Now go back to each sentence and write on the side what
type of relationship exists between the clauses: TIME, CONDITION, CAUSALITY,
NOT!, EMPHASIS, OR ADDITION.
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copyright 1999 Cynthia Joyce Clay